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Context: Alcohols are among the most common organic compounds. They are used as

by | Jun 17, 2022 | Chemistry | 0 comments

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Context: Alcohols are among the most common organic compounds. They are used as sweeteners and in making perfumes, are valuable intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds, and are among the most abundantly produced organic chemicals in industry. Alcohols can exist in all chain lengths and can take on primary, secondary or tertiary structures. These structural differences will dictate the properties of alcohols and determine their commercial and industrial use. Task: Through a firsthand investigation, you are to determine the identities of four unknown alcohols. You will be required to prepare a scientific report as described below (approximately 2000 words). Nature of the Task: Plan and conduct an investigation to determine the identity of unknown alcohols and consider: • validity of the experimental design • reliability of the data obtained • accuracy of the procedure and results CH11/12-1 develops and evaluates questions and hypotheses for scientific investigation CH11/12-2 designs and evaluates investigations in order to obtain primary and secondary data and information CH11/12-7 communicates scientific understanding using suitable language and terminology for a specific audience or purpose CH11/12-1 develops and evaluates questions and hypotheses for scientific investigation CH11/12-2 designs and evaluates investigations in order to obtain primary and secondary data and information CH11/12-3 conducts investigations to collect valid and reliable primary and secondary data and information CH11/12-4 selects and processes appropriate qualitative and quantitative data and information using a range of appropriate media CH11/12-5 analyses and evaluates primary and secondary data and information CH11/12-6 solves scientific problems using primary and secondary data, critical thinking skills and scientific processes CH11/12-7 communicates scientific understanding using suitable language and terminology for a specific audience or purpose CH12-14 analyses the structure of, and predicts reactions involving, carbon compounds Important information • Classes will have access to the laboratory during class time. It is not an expectation that the lab is used every lesson. Only as required, where time permits and with consultation with your teacher. • Due to the nature of the task, use of the labs and conducting laboratory work with chemicals requires a thorough knowledge of the risk associated with the chemicals, equipment and procedures being used. • Teachers must be given notice of laboratory requirements prior to a lesson where lab work is intended to be completed. • An abstract in the scientific report is not required and will not count towards the overall word count if included. • Available known alcohols: methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol • All known and unknown alcohols will be provided in spirit burners. Use outside of this is possible but needs to be discussed with your teacher. RISK for ALL alcohols All alcohols, known and unknown, should be handled very carefully and only used in properly ventilated areas. All should be treated as being toxic when in contact with skin and upon consumption (DON’T DO THIS!). All alcohols and their vapours are highly flammable. Appropriate safety precautions must be taken at all times including the use of PPE. my methods I. Solubility 1. In a clean, dry test tube (x4), combine 1ml of your unknown alcohol with 2 mil of water. If your unknown is soluble in water, the two liquids should completely mix. If the unknown is insoluble in water, you should be able to see two layers (the unmixed liquids) in the test tube. Record your observations. 4. Repeat the procedure 5. Dispose of the wastes from this section in the appropriate container and place your test tubes in the designated dirty glassware rack. II. Boiling point of alcohol in water 1. Place a 500ml beaker containing about 400mL of tap water on top of a hotplate in the fume hood. 2. You should have about 10 mL of your unknown alcohol stored in a side on test tube with a hose 3. Put boiling chips into beaker full of water to prevent bumping and to ensure even boiling. 4. Clamp the test tube so that it is suspended in the water bath. Make sure the test tube does not touch the beaker and make sure that the level of alcohol inside the test tube is mostly below the level of water in the outer beaker; if not, adjust the height of the clamp. 5. Obtain a split-hole stopper and insert a thermometer into the split hole. 6. Turn the thermometer so that the scale can be read in the split. 7. Insert the stopper and thermometer into the test tube. 8. Adjust the thermometer so that its bulb is 1 cm above the unknown alcohol. Immerse the test-tube in the 500 mL beaker. 9. Turn the righthand dial on your hotplate to “High”. Heat the water gradually (the beaker is a hot water bath) and watch for changes both in the heating water and especially in the test- tube. When the alcohol has reached its boiling temperature, you will observe a large number of boiling bubbles in the unknown alcohol and the temperature should remain fairly stable. Record this temperature as the boiling point temperature. Do not boil until the test tube is dry on the inside. Boiling down to a small (or no) amount of your unknown alcohol could lead to an inaccurate reading of its boiling point. 10. Once you have determined the boiling point temperature, turn off the hotplate, remove the test-tube from the hot water bath and allow the equipment to cool. III. Boiling point of alcohol in oil – because some alcohols exceed 100 degrees 1. Place a 75ml beaker containing about 25ml of vegetable oil on top of a hotplate in the fume hood. 2. You should already have about 10 mL of your unknown alcohol stored in a side on testube with hose 3. Clamp the test tube so that it is suspended in the oil bath. Make sure the test tube does not touch the beaker and make sure that the level of alcohol inside the test tube is below the level of alcohol in the outer beaker; if not, adjust the height of the clamp. 4. Obtain a split-hole stopper and insert a digital thermometer into the split hole. 5.Insert the stopper and digital thermometer into the test tube. 6. Adjust the digital thermometer so that its bulb is 1 cm above the unknown alcohol Immerse the test-tube in the 75mL beaker. 7. Turn the righthand dial on your hotplate to “High”. Heat the water gradually (the beaker is a hot oil bath) and watch for changes both in the heating oil and especially in the test- tube. When the alcohol has reached its boiling temperature, you will observe a large number of boiling bubbles in the unknown alcohol and the temperature should remain fairly stable. Record this temperature as the boiling point temperature. Do not boil until the test tube is dry on the inside. Boiling down to a small (or no) amount of your unknown alcohol could lead to an inaccurate reading of its boiling point. 8. Once you have determined the boiling point temperature, turn off the hotplate, remove the test-tube from the oil bath and allow the equipment to cool. IV. lucus test I havn’t done a method for this however the results for ALL the experiments are in the attachment with the marking guidlines

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