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Respond to each post in 137 words elaborating and adding additional information.
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Freud’s theory is a theory that is based on the personality development through the series of childhood in stages. This is focused on the erogenous stages of child development. An erogenous zone is when there is an area of a person’s body that is sensitive to stimulation. There are five psychosexual stages which are the oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital stages. These all are a source of pleasure in Freud’s theory. In each stage development, depending on the experiences, these stages can build growth or delay development. Freud states that if certain issues throughout development are not resolved at the appropriate stage, stifle or fixation can occur. In other words, a person may become stuck in a particular stage. The Oral stage is age ranged from birth to one year of age. This is called the Erogenous Zone (mouth). During this stage the infant’s primary interaction occurs through the mouth. Rooting and sucking reflexes take place and are important. The Anal stage is age range from one through 3. The erogenous zone is the bowel and bladder control. This involves bladder control and bowel movements. The Phallic stage is age range from three to six. The erogenous zone is the genitals. At this age children begin to discover the differences between male and females. The Latent Period in age range from six to puberty. The erogenous zone are sexual feelings that are inactive. During this stage children develop social skills and build relationships with peers and other’s outside of the family. The genital stage is puberty to death. The erogenous zone is maturing sexual interest. This stage focuses on developing strong sexual connections. These work closely with nursing care because it provide stages in life the nurse can use to assess the growth and development of the patient.
Erikson’s theory of psychosexual describes the impact of social experiences across the lifespan of the person. His interest was how social interactions impact relationships played a role in the development of human beings. In these stages are Infancy, ages birth to eighteen months and is associated with Trust versus Mistrust. Some important events that should take place during this time frame are feeding. Early childhood are ages two to three years old. The conflict is autonomy versus shame and doubt. Some milestones during this phase are toileting. Preschool age is ages three to five years old. The conflict is initiative versus guilt. The conflicts are the exploration. School age is from six to eleven years of age and deals with industry versus inferiority. The conflicts deal with school and the relationships involved with school. Young adulthood is nineteen through forty years of age. This involves intimacy versus isolation. This deals with relationships and love. Middle adulthood is forty through sixty-five years of age. This stage deals with generativity versus stagnation. This deals with work and parenthood. Maturity is ego integrity versus despair. This deals with reflection on love and wisdom. Erikson’s theory is used closely with the social interactions and development stages that the nursing profession uses to establish milestones.
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development deals with the six stages of moral development and how they confirm to a person’s identity. These are 1. Rules are fixed and absolute. 2. Judging actions according to individual needs. 3. Conforming and being “nice”. 4 is respecting authority. 5 is considering individual rights. 6 is ethical principles and abstract reasoning. These all are closely related to nursing care in the sense that they must follow rules and these rules are absolute. Respecting authority during nursing care. The nurse must be an advocate for individual rights and must be ethical during their nursing care.
Silvestri, L. & Silvestri, A. (2020). Saunders Comprehensive Review for the NCLEX-RN Examination (8 ed.). Elsevier. Chapter 21, pages 257-261).
The three main psychological theories that related to nursing come from the infamous Freud, Erickson, and Kohlberg. Psychology basically seeks to understand why people behave, think and feel the way they do, individually and in groups, in all areas of life including health. Changes in behavior sometimes can enhance well-being and quality of life and thus is much useful and linked deeply to what nurses do. Nurses can use psychological theories to enhance the nursing practice, and can better their understanding and practice.
Sigmund Freud divided personality into three components: id, ego, and supergo. His theory is focused on the unconscious mind and is valuable as a baseline for understanding the complex human behavior. According to Freud the “Id is the primitive part of the human mind and focuses on the needs,wants, desires, and impulses and acts according to the ‘pleasure principle’ that motivates to seek immediate gratification of any impulse” (Silvestri & Silvestri, 2020 pg. 218). The superego is the highly moral part that reflects the internalization of rules. It is more like a conscience that is based on the feelings of guilt and works in contraindication to the id. The ego is the rational part of the mind. Sometimes it is known as reason or common sense which is the middle part between the id and superego. The phallic stage that occurs between 3-6 years old and for example in a young boy the develops sexual desires for the person in the opposite sex. The feeling of being in control of both the world and of one’s emotional life, strength, and assertiveness in general as well as in sexuality.
Erickson’s theory is more based on how humans develop in relation to their psychosocial environment.He has it divided into eight stages that go from infancy to adulthood. Each stage has a crisis and if successful will get a positive outcome and if not it will end up for a negative outcome that effects the personality development. “Each stage is based on age and may not be permanent and dependent on the situation as well” (Silvestri & Silvestri, 2020 pg. 215). In infancy the stage is trust vs. mistrust for infants from the age of birth to 18 months. When the child cries the mother should answer and come to comfort the child as it is important for the child to feel safe and trust in that phase. If this does not occur and the crisis takes over the child may experience problems with trusting people later in life. Being aware of this issue can help nurses to be aware and provide infants and toddlers with opportunities for growth and development.
Kohlberg based his theory on the moral development in people. It focuses on how children develop morality and moral reasoning and this occurs in six stages. In the conventional stage it is characterized by an acceptance of social rules concerning what is right and wrong. “Successful completion will being to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models” (Silvestri & Silvestri, 2020 pg. 217). If someone reacts without this moral maturation and have negative affects later, it helps the nurse identify the lack of proper psychosocial development and offer opportunities to better development.
Silvestri, L. A., & Silvestri, A. E. (2020). Saunders comprehensive review for the NCLEX-RN examination (8thedition.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier
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