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NOTE: each short paper is to be formatted using Times New Roman 12-point font, d

by | Nov 25, 2021 | Psychology and Education : Psychology | 0 comments

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NOTE: each short paper is to be formatted using Times New Roman 12-point font, double-spacing, and one-inch margins all around.
NOTE: a title page is not required, but you may include one if you like; however, do not include information such as your name, the course title, or the date at the beginning of the text of your short paper.
Short Paper 4
In addition to reviewing attachment theory, two key objectives of this assignment are to expose you to a peer-reviewed journal article and to deepen your understanding of research methods.
For this short paper, you will primarily use Waldinger and Schulz’s (2016) article “The Long Reach of Nurturing Family Environments: Links with Midlife Emotion-Regulatory Styles and Late-Life Security in Intimate Relationships” (Waldinger & Schulz (2016) – The Long Reach of Nurturing Family Environments – Links With Midlife Emotion-Regulatory Styles and Late-Life Security in Intimate Relationships.pdf ).
Also, you will refer to Sherlock and Zietsch’s critique of Waldinger and Schulz, “Longitudinal Relationships between Parents’ and Children’s Behavior Need Not Implicate the Influence of Parental Behavior and May Reflect Genetics: Comment on Waldinger and Schulz (2016)” (Sherlock & Zietsch (2018) – Longitudinal Relationships Between Parents’ and Children’s Behavior Need Not Implicate the Influence of Parental Behavior and May Reflect Genetics.pdf ).
You will also draw from Chapter 6 of the textbook and the notes on attachment theory.
Write a 2-page paper (not more than 2 pages, not less than 2 pages), double-spaced, that addresses the following items.
In a single paragraph, summarize the following information:
The attachment system and its purpose, including an explanation of how it is activated and how it is deactivated.
The role of caregivers in shaping a child’s attachment style.
Ambivalent (anxious), avoidant, and secure attachment styles.
The role of the attachment system in adult intimate relationships.
Address the following items, which are related to the methods of Waldinger and Schulz’s study:
In what ways does Waldinger and Schulz’s sample limit the external validity of the study? That is, for what reasons and in what ways might the study findings not generalize beyond the sample to other populations? In your answer, address the demographics of the sample as well as the use of convenience sampling (the researchers used available participants from two earlier studies; from one study, 51 of the original 268 participants participated, and from the other, 30 of the original 268 participants participated).
Briefly, how did Waldinger and Schulz measure the variable security of attachment? In what ways might participant reactivity and response sets have negatively impacted the measurement (see research notes for “Relationships and Measurement of Variables”)? What does it mean that the interrater reliability of the coders was .70, and what does this mean for the accuracy of measurement (see research notes for “Relationships and Measurement of Variables”)?
How is the internal validity of Waldinger and Schulz’s study (i.e., our confidence that the independent variable is responsible for changes in the dependent variable) limited by the use of a longitudinal study design? (NOTE: for this answer, incorporate Sherlock and Zietsch’s critique of Waldinger and Schulz.) (Also, see research notes for “Relationships and Measurement of Variables.”)
Generally speaking, how is a longitudinal design different from a cross-sectional design? What are the benefits of using a longitudinal design? What are the limitations of using a longitudinal design? (See research notes for “Developmental Research Designs”)
Address the following items, which are related to the results and discussion of Waldinger and Schulz’s study:
Waldinger and Schulz claim early family environments affect individuals’ emotional regulation, which, in turn, determines their adult attachment styles. However, they also report that emotional regulation accounts for only about 6% of the quality of adult attachment. They propose that in addition to emotional regulation, the following factors may contribute to secure adult attachment: “active selection of nurturing relational environments, repeated elicitation from other individuals of behaviors that reinforce adaptive relational patterns…and internalized beliefs about the availability and reliability of other people…” (p. 1448). Being specific, describe a practical application of Waldinger and Schulz’s findings.
In your opinion, is Waldinger and Schulz’s study an important one (i.e., is it significant)? Explain why it is or why it is not.

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